Power and Control Wheels
In 1984 these wheels were developed by the domestic abuse intervention project with victims of domestic violence in Duluth, USA, (hence these are also known as the Duluth wheels). They identified the commonalities that was shared by those who were the subject of domestic abuse. Since then there have been many variations of these wheels developed for differing abusive situations. They are used internationally as part of many diverse anti violence programs, and people have said that this model helps them understand the nature of abuse they have experienced, or have inflicted on others.
Domestic violence nearly always has some or all of the elements of power and control found on the wheel on the left which shows how domestic violence can not only be about physical and/or sexual abuse, but can involve a range of tactics, ie psychological, emotional and financial. The abuser controls their victims through coercion and fear and/or the threat of physical violence in order to get their own way.
The model on the left reflects what a dysfunctional, abusive relationship looks like. The model on the right shows the key elements of healthy non-abusive relationships.
(click on each wheel for a enlarged view)